大学英语四级题库/阅读理解 Section B

Water, Desert and BodyA) Rainfall is not completely absent, in desert areas, but it is highly variable. An annual rainfall of four inches is often used to define the limits of a desert. The impact of rainfall upon the surface water and groundwater resources of the desert is greatly influenced by landforms. Flats and depressions where water can collect are common features, but they make up only a small part of the landscape.
B) Arid lands, surprisingly, contain some of the world's largest fiver systems, such as the Murray-Dar- ling in Australia, the Rio Grande in North America, the Indus in Asia, and the Nile in Africa. These rivers and fiver systems are known as "exogenous" because their sources lie outside the arid zone. They are vital for sustaining life in some of the driest parts of the world. For centuries, the annual floods of the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates, for example, have brought fertile silts and water to the inhabitants of their lower valleys. Today, river discharges are increasingly controlled by human intervention, creating a need for international river-basin agreements. The filling of the Ataturk and other dams in Turkey has drastically reduced flows in the Euphrates, with potentially serious consequences for Syria and Iraq.
C) The flow of exogenous rivers varies with the season. The desert sections of long rivers respond several months after rain has fallen outside the desert, so that peak flows may be in the dry season. This is useful for irrigation, but the high temperatures, low humidity, and different day lengths of the dry season, compared to the normal growing season, can present difficulties with some crops.
D) Regularly flowing rivers and streams that originate within arid lands are known as "endogenous" (内流河). These are generally fed by groundwater springs, and many issue from limestone massifs, such as the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Basaltic rocks also support springs, notably at the Jabal AIArab on the Jordan-Syria border. Endogenous rivers often do not reach the sea but drain into inland basins, where the water evaporates or is lost in the ground. Most desert streambeds are normally dry, but they occasionally receive large flows of water and sediment.
E) Deserts contain large amounts of groundwater when compared to the amounts they hold in surface stores such as lakes and rivers. But only a small fraction of groundwater enters the hydrological cycle-feeding the flows of streams, maintaining lake levels, and being recharged (or refilled) through surface flows and rainwater. In recent years, groundwater has become an increasingly importantsource of freshwater for desert dwellers. The United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank have funded attempts to survey the groundwater resources of arid lands and to develop appropriate extraction techniques. Such programs are much needed because in many arid lands there is only a vague idea of the extent of groundwater resources. It is known, however, that the distribution of groundwater is uneven, and that much of it lies at great depths.
F) Groundwater is stored in the pore spaces and joints of rocks and unconsolidated sediments or in the openings widened through fractures and weathering. The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an "aquifer". Because they are porous, sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, are important potential sources of groundwater. Large quantities of water may also be stored in lime- stone when joints and cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. Most limestone and sandstone aquifers are deep and extensive but may contain groundwater that are not being recharged. Most shallow aquifers in sand and gravel deposits produce lower yields, but they can be rapidly recharged. Some deep aquifers are known as fossil waters. The term "fossil" describes water that has been present for several thousand years. These aquifers became saturated more than 10,000 years ago and are no longer being recharged.
G) Water does not remain immobile in an aquifer but can seep out at springs or leak into other aquifers. The rate of movement may be very slow : in the Indus plain, the movement of saline (salty) ground waters has still not reached equilibrium after 70 years of being tapped. The mineral content of groundwater normally increases with the depth, but even quite shallow aquifers can be highly saline.
H) According to the European Federation of Bottled Water (EFBW) Group for Health's Chairman, Dr. Laurent Le Bellego, water is essential for almost all body functions as it plays an important role in the formation of cells and fluids. In Dr. Le Bellego's opinion, drinking water compensates for lost fluid and ensures adequate hydration for the body: a fact "which is fundamental to the health and welfare", as evidenced by the document, "The science on water and hydration". The document was introduced as part of the 38th World Congress of International Society of Medical Hydrology and Climatology (ISMH), which was held in Lanjaron (Granada).
I) The document also recognizes the need to drink water every day to stay properly hydrated. "Over a lifetime, water should be the preferred beverage to hydrate our bodies on a daily basis," Le Bellegosuggested. Dr. Le Bellego also warned that when you fail to drink enough fluids, your body retainswater and your urine appears dark. Among the symptoms of mild dehydration are a dry mouth, fatigue, thirst, decreased urine output, decreased mental and physical performance, headaches and dizziness. As for the amount of water that needs to be drunk, this expert has pointed to the panel of experts from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which believes that everyone should consume at least two liters of water a day. The amount should be increased depending on the physical activity and heat. The document, "The science on water and hydration", has been endorsed by the Re-search Institute of Water and Health (IIAS) and the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians ( SE-MERGEN). and has been distributed to general practitioners. 

1.[选词填空]The word "aquifer" means rock or sediment containing lots of water.
    2.[选词填空]The endogenous rivers are generally fed by groundwater.
      3.[选词填空]The document stresses the need to drink water every day to stay properly hydrated.
        4.[选词填空]The sources of exogenous rivers and river systems lie outside the arid zone.
          5.[选词填空]The flow of exogenous river is influenced by different seasons and the water increased could be a good factor for irrigation.
            6.[选词填空]The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an aquifer, which may not always refilled according to different situations.
              7.[选词填空]Water is essential for almost all body functions as it plays an important role in the formation of cells and fluids.
                8.[选词填空]Only a small fraction of groundwater enters the hydrological cycle.
                  9.[选词填空]It introduces the definition of desert and the relationship between the rainfall and landforms.
                    10.[选词填空]The mineral content of groundwater increases with the depth if in a normal way.
                      参考答案: F,D,I,B,C,F,C,E,A,G
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